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The 4 Primary Ingredients For Brewing Beer You Need To Know

Beer is one of the oldest and most popular types of alcohol in the world. People have been brewing for centuries, and it continues to be a go-to choice despite the different options available. 

However, brewing beer is an art that requires a combination of 4 main ingredients which are malts, yeast, hops, and water. Each ingredient has a different role depending on the type of beer and brewing process. 

Overall, they are responsible for the different characteristics of your beer. The various flavors (sweet, bitter, citrusy) as well as the different aromas (sweet, malty, nutty). 

In this article, we will explore:

  • The 4 main ingredients used in beer brewing
  • Creating the perfect beer
  • The role water plays in brewing 

By understanding the ingredients used in beer brewing, you will be able to better appreciate the craftsmanship and skill that goes into creating your favorite brew!



Malt is one of the key ingredients in the production of beer and different malts produce different flavors, colors, and aromas.

Definition Of Malt 

Malt is produced when grains are soaked in water and allowed to germinate. Germination develops enzymes required to turn the starches into sugars. Mashing (adding malts to hot water) then converts the starches to sugars. 

Types Of Malt

There are several types of malt that can be used in beer brewing and the type of grain and the process of germination will determine the color and flavor of your malt.

  1. Barley is the most commonly used malt in beer brewing, and it provides a mild, sweet flavor and golden color
  2. Wheat provides a light, slightly tart flavor
  3. Rye provides a spicy, earthy flavor
  4. Oats produce a smooth, creamy flavor

Uses Of Malt In Brewing

The uses of malt in brewing are varied and essential for creating a great tasting beer. These uses include: 

  • Mashing: Malt is used in the mashing process. During this process, malt works to convert the starches in the grain into fermentable sugars. The sugars are then used by the yeast during fermentation to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide.
  • Aromas & Flavors: Different types of malt can be used to produce different flavors and aromas. For example, roasted malts can be used to provide a roasted, chocolate, or coffee flavor while pale malts can provide a more subtle, biscuity flavor.
  • Ranging Colors: Malt is also used to provide the color of the beer which ranges from light golden to dark brown. The color is usually determined by the amount of roasting that the malt has undergone. The more the malt is roasted, the darker the color of the beer.
  • Body of Beer: Finally, malt is used to provide the body of the beer which is determined by the amount of unfermentable sugars that are present in the beer. The more malt that is used, the fuller bodied the beer will be.

Malt Quality

The quality of the malt used in beer brewing can have a major impact on the flavor, aroma, and overall character of the final product. High-quality malt will produce a better-tasting beer, while low-quality malt may produce an inferior product. 

Malt quality is determined by a variety of factors. These factors include:

  • Grain Variety: The grain variety as different grains have different levels of enzymes, starches, and proteins that affect the taste and aroma of the malt.
  • Malting Process: The malting process which involves steeping, germination, and kilning, also affects the flavor and aroma of the malt. 
  • Storage: The storage conditions will determine the freshness of the malt and its ability to retain its flavor and aroma.

white labs yeast


 Yeast is a single-celled microorganism used in the beer brewing process which contributes to the flavor, aroma as well as the overall character of beer. It is for all intents and purposes the star of the show. 

Definition Of Yeast

Yeast is a single-celled microorganism that is a key component in the production of beer. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a popular species of yeast that has been used in brewing for centuries. 

The yeast is added to the wort (the liquid extracted from the mash) and begins to consume the sugars, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide in the process. This process is known as fermentation and is the defining characteristic of beer. 

You can visit our online store to shop our two distinct fermenters that will elevate your fermentation into the stainless age. 

Types Of Yeast

Different yeast strains can be used to create different flavors and aromas, so it is important for brewers to understand the different types of yeast and how they can be used to create the desired flavor profile.

There are two main types of yeast used in beer brewing: 

  • Top Fermenting Yeast (Ale Yeast) is a type of yeast that ferments at a higher temperature than lager yeast, and produces a beer with a fuller body and a fruity flavor. Ale yeast is used to produce ales, stouts, and porters. 
  • Bottom Fermenting Yeast (Lager Yeast) is a type of yeast that ferments at a lower temperature than ale yeast. This type of yeast produces a beer with a crisp, clean flavor. Lager yeast is usually used to produce light-colored lagers and pilsners.

Yeast's Role In Brewing Beer

Yeast plays a critical role in the beer brewing process. It is responsible for converting the sugars present in the malt into alcohol and carbon dioxide, which gives beer its characteristic flavor and aroma.

Furthermore, it helps to remove proteins and other solids from the beer. This helps to give the beer a clear and bright appearance. Yeast also adds complexity to the beer through its production of esters and other flavor compounds.

Finally, yeast also helps to stabilize by preventing bacteria and other microorganisms from growing. This helps to ensure that the beer can be stored and enjoyed for a longer period of time.

Benefits Of Using Yeast

There are numerous benefits to using yeast in the brewing process, which can be broken down into two main categories: flavor and aroma.

When it comes to flavor, yeast is responsible for producing the esters and phenols that give beer its distinct flavor profile. If you enjoy fruity, floral flavors that come in some beers, then you have esters to thank for that. On the other hand, we can appreciate phenols for its smoky, spicy, or medicinal flavor profiles.

In terms of aroma, yeast is responsible for producing the alcohols that give beer its signature aroma. Alcohols are responsible for the fruity, floral, and spicy aromas that are associated with beer. 

But for more info on all things yeast, fermentation and oxygenation, head over to White Labs, our friend and partner, to learn all about this important step in the brewing process. 

hops collected inside boil kettle


Hops are one of the 4 main ingredients used in brewing beer alongside malt, yeast and water. It is a type of cone shaped flower that can add a bitter flavor and aroma to beer, as well as acts as a preservative.

Definition Of Hops

Hops are small, green, cone-like flowers that contain a resin-like substance called lupulin that is used to flavor and preserve beer. They also provide bitterness to balance the sweetness of the malt, and to add complexity to the flavor of the beer. 

Types Of Hops

When it comes to hops, there are many varieties to choose from. Each type of hop has its own distinct flavor and aroma and the type of hop you choose will depend on the style of beer you are brewing, as well as your personal preference.

Some of the most popular types of hops include:

  • Bittering Hops: These hops are used to add bitterness to beer, and are usually added at the beginning of the boil (ex: Apollo and Columbus)
  • Aroma Hops: These hops are used to add aroma and flavor to beer, and are usually added at the end of the boil (ex: Centennial hops and Cascade hops)
  • Dual Purpose Hops: These hops are used to add aroma as well as bitter flavor to beer. (ex: Amarillo, Mosaic and Citra)

Role Of Hops In Brewing Beer

Hops are added to the beer during the brewing process, typically at the beginning, middle, and end. The amount of hops used, and the timing of the addition, can have a huge impact on the flavor of the beer. Hops added at the beginning of the process will provide bitterness, while hops added at the end of the process will provide varying aroma and flavor profiles from citrusy to floral to earthy.

Additionally, hops contain a compound called humulone, which has antibacterial properties which helps to protect the beer from bacteria and other microorganisms, allowing it to last longer.

Hop Harvesting  

Hop harvesting is a crucial part of the beer brewing process as it ensures that the hop cones used are of the highest quality. It is a labor-intensive process, but it is necessary in order to ensure that the beer has the best flavor and aroma possible.

The hop cones are harvested from the hop bines, which are the long strings of vines that are trained to grow in a particular way. The hop bines must be trained carefully in order to ensure that the hop cones are of the highest quality.  

The hop cones are then collected when they are at their peak of maturity, usually in late summer or early fall. 

Hop harvesting is done by hand, as the hop cones must be picked at just the right time. The cones are then dried and processed. Once the hop cones are dried, they can be used in beer brewing. 


Water is the foundation of all beer and makes up the majority of the beer’s volume. The quality of the water used in the brewing process can have a huge impact on the flavor of the beer which implies that while producing high quality beer, running water from the tap is not exactly the best practice. 

Importance Of Water In Beer Brewing

The mineral content of the water used in beer brewing can have a significant impact on the flavor, clarity, aroma and color of the beer. For this reason, brewers have traditionally used water sources that have a unique mineral content to craft their beers.

The different levels of acidity in different types of water can affect the flavor and aroma of the beer. Water with higher levels of acidity can cause the beer to have a sour taste, while water with lower levels of acidity can make the beer taste more mellow.

The different levels of proteins and sugars can also affect the amount of foam produced by the beer. 

The Different Types Of Water Used When Brewing Beer 

Different types of water can be used in brewing beer, each imparting its own unique flavor and character to the final product. 

  • Soft Water: Soft water is low in mineral content and is most commonly used for brewing pale ales, lagers, and pilsners. 
  • Hard Water: Hard water is high in mineral content, usually containing calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. It is most commonly used to brew dark ales and stouts.
  • Acidic Water: Acidic water is low in pH and can be used to brew sour beers such as lambics and gueuzes. 
  • Alkaline Water: Alkaline water is high in pH and is used to brew light-colored beers such as pilsners and lagers. 

No matter the type of water is used, it is important to make sure that it is free from contaminants and impurities. This will ensure that the beer is of the highest quality and has a clean and balanced flavor.

The Role Of Water In Beer Brewing

Water is the primary ingredient in beer, making up around 95% of the total volume. This is enough to indicate how important its role is in beer production . 

The type of water used, its mineral content, pH and temperature will have a significant impact on the flavor of the beer, its fermentation process as well as the texture and mouthfeel of the beer.

Final Thoughts: It’s Brew Day!

In conclusion, beer brewing is a complex process that requires a careful combination of 4 main ingredients: malts, yeast, hops, and water. Malts provide the sugars that are necessary for fermentation, while yeast helps to convert the sugars into alcohol. 

Hops are added for bitterness and aroma, while water helps to create the right consistency and flavor. With the right combination of ingredients, a brewer can create a beer that is both flavorful and enjoyable.

Get started on that perfect brew with our wide variety of accessories available at the Spike store! And in the meantime, check out our video to Learn How to Brew Beer at Home

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